- Since 2001, female workers lost share of employment in 48 out of the 50 highest paying jobs
- Millennials performing jobs formerly held by teenage workforce
- College graduation classes more diverse, contributing to workforce gains for Hispanic/Latino and Asian workers
- Black/African American workers gained in 44 percent of the 50 highest paying jobs
The report, “The Changing Face of U.S. Jobs,” explores how an increasingly diverse population is affecting the composition of nearly 800 occupations by gender, age and race/ethnicity. The analysis is based on data from Economic Modeling Specialists Intl. (EMSI), CareerBuilder’s labor market analysis arm that pulls from more than 90 government and private sector resources.
Occupation Composition by Gender
- Women make up greater share of workforce. In 2014, 49 percent of jobs were held by women, compared to 48 percent in 2001. That amounts to 4.9 million more female workers since 2001 compared to just 2.2 million additional male workers. (Pg. 4)
- Men are performing a wider variety of work. Despite gains in overall workforce participation by women, men are gaining a share of employment in 72 percent of all occupations. Examples include gains in female-majority occupations like pharmacists, credit analysts and physical therapists. Women gained a greater share of employment in just 21 percent of occupations, including male-majority occupations like labor relations specialists, landscape architects and agricultural managers. (Pg. 5)
- Occupational segregation contributes to pay gap. Jobs with a high concentration of male workers pay significantly more per hour, on average, than jobs with a high concentration of female workers–$25.49 median hourly earnings for men vs. $20.85 median hourly earnings for women. (Pg. 6)
- Women are losing share of employment in high-paying jobs. Since 2001, women lost ground in 48 out of the 50 highest paying jobs, including: surgeons, chief executives and software developers. They gained share among lawyers and political scientists. (Pg. 7)
- Job losses have come primarily in male-majority jobs. Among the occupations that lost 10,000 jobs or more since 2001, 76 percent were male-majority occupations. As jobs went away in these fields, male workers had to find work in a broader array of occupations. (Pg. 8)
- Occupations with largest gains are mostly female-majority. Among the occupations that gained 75,000 jobs or more, 69 percent were female-majority. The largest gains in the workforce for women occurred in a smaller number of sizable occupations. (Pg. 8)
- Women dominate college graduation numbers, but not in top-paying fields. While 5.6 million more women than men attained college degrees from 2004-2013, men continue to lead in programs that typically lead to higher-paying jobs, such as: computer science (83 percent of 2013 grads), engineering (79 percent), law (54 percent), and postgraduate business (54 percent.) (Pg. 9-10)
Occupation Composition by Age
- The most dramatic demographic shift in workforce composition is age. The teenage workforce is 33 percent smaller than in 2001, while the age 55 and older workforce grew 40 percent. Jobs for young professionals (age 22-34) grew only 4 percent, while employment for workers age 35-54 shrunk by 1 percent. (Pg.13)
- Teens lost share of total employment in 75 percent of occupations. Opportunities in many staples of summertime or afterschool work are significantly harder to come by for teen workers: hosts/hostesses (32 percent of all jobs in 2014, down from 45 percent in 2001), food prep/serving (14 percent, down from 23 percent), ushers/ticket takers (12 percent, down from 23 percent). (Pg. 14)
- Millennials lost share of employment in high-paying occupations. Millennials are losing share of employment in 69 percent of all occupations (averaging $25.85/hr.) and gaining share in 29 percent of occupations (averaging $19.82/hr.), including many jobs previously held by teenage workers like cashiers, fast food cooks and dishwashers. (Pg.15)
- The aging workforce is felt in virtually all occupations. Moreover, workers 55 and older make up 25 percent of the workforce in 210 occupations. There were only 86 such occupations in 2014. (Pg. 16)
Occupation Composition by Race/Ethnicity
- The U.S. population is more racially and ethnically diverse now than at the turn of the century, and so is the workforce. Hispanic/Latino and Asian workers make up a greater share of the workforce now than in 2001. Hispanics/Latinos held 13 percent of jobs in 2014, up from 11 percent in 2001, and Asians held 5 percent of jobs in 2014, up from 4 percent in 2001. White workers, meanwhile, lost share of total employment, dropping from 71 percent in 2001 to 69 percent in 2014. Black/African American workers held 12 percent of all jobs in 2014, unchanged from 2001. (Pg.20)
- Hispanic/Latino workers gained in 96 percent of occupations. The group is highly-concentrated (25% higher representation than the group’s overall workforce share) in 144 occupations with average median earnings of $15.04/hr. Examples of occupations where Hispanic/Latino workers are gaining ground are dental assistants, loan officers and service unit operators in oil, gas and mining. (Pg.21 and 23)
- Asian workers gained in 90 percent of occupations. The group is highly-concentrated in 210 occupations with average median earnings of $31.23/hr. Examples of occupations where Asian workers are gaining ground are software developers, skincare specialists and pharmacists. (Pg.21 and 23)
- Black/African American workers gained share in 22 percent of all occupations and in 44 percent of the 50 highest paying jobs. The group is highly-concentrated in 149 occupations with average median earnings of $18.16/hr. Examples of occupations where Black/African American workers are gaining ground are internists, pilots and lawyers. (Pg. 22 and 23)
- White workers lost share in most occupations, including each of the 50 highest paying jobs, but remain the majority job holders in 95 percent of occupations. The group is highly-concentrated in just 35 occupations with average median earnings of $29.73/hr. White workers are gaining in agricultural occupations. (Pg. 22 and 23)
- College graduates are significantly more diverse than in 2004. Non-white students made up 37 percent of all associate, bachelor’s and post-grad completers in 2013, up from 30 percent in 2004. (Pg. 24)
About this Report
Data used to compile this report is based primarily on Economic Modeling Specialists International’s extensive labor market data set. EMSI, a CareerBuilder company, gathers and integrates economic, labor market, demographic and education data from more than 90 government and private-sector sources, creating a comprehensive and current database that includes both published data and detailed estimates. The report uses EMSI’s 2014.3 Class of Worker data set and does not include self-employed workers.
CareerBuilder is the global leader in human capital solutions, helping companies target and attract great talent. Its online career site, CareerBuilder.com®, is the largest in the United States with more than 24 million unique visitors and 1 million jobs. CareerBuilder works with the world’s top employers, providing everything from labor market intelligence to talent management software and other recruitment solutions. Owned by Gannett Co., Inc. (NYSE:GCI), Tribune Company and The McClatchy Company (NYSE:MNI), CareerBuilder and its subsidiaries operate in the United States, Europe, South America, Canada and Asia. For more information, visit www.careerbuilder.com.
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