October 2013 U.S. Passenger Airline Employment Down 0.8 Percent from October 2012

2013-12-19
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  • Bureau of Transportation Statistics U.S. scheduled passenger airlines employed 381,178 workers in October 2013, 0.8 percent fewer than in October 2012, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reported today. October was the 14th consecutive month that full-time equivalent (FTE) employment for U.S. scheduled passenger carriers was below that of the same month of the previous year but it was the smallest decline since September 2012

    U.S. scheduled passenger airlines employed 381,178 workers in October 2013, 0.8 percent fewer than in October 2012, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reported today. October was the 14th consecutive month that full-time equivalent (FTE) employment for U.S. scheduled passenger carriers was below that of the same month of the previous year but it was the smallest decline since September 2012 (Tables 1, 2, 3).

    Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-Time Equivalent Employees,

    Month of October, 1990-2013

    Graph Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-Time Equivalent Employees,  Month of October, 1990-2013

    BTS, a part of the Department’s Research and Innovative Technology Administration, reported that the October 2013 FTE total for scheduled passenger carriers was 3,132 fewer than in October 2012 (Table 3). Scheduled passenger airline categories include network, low-cost, regional and other airlines. Historical employment data can be found on the BTS web site.

    The five network airlines that collectively employ two-thirds of the scheduled passenger airline FTEs reported 1.4 percent fewer FTEs in October 2013 than in October 2012, the 15th consecutive month with a decline from the same month of the previous year (Table 7). American Airlines reduced FTEs by 5.5 percent from October 2012, Delta Air Lines by 1.6 percent and United Airlines by 0.2 percent. US Airways increased FTEs by 3.3 percent and Alaska Airlines by 3.2 percent from October 2012 (Table 9). Network airlines operate a significant portion of flights using at least one hub where connections are made for flights to down-line destinations or spoke cities.

    Of the six low-cost carriers, four - Spirit Airlines, Allegiant Airlines, JetBlue Airways and Virgin America - reported an increase in FTEs from October 2012 while two - Frontier Airlines, Southwest Airlines - reported a decline (Table 12). Low-cost airlines operate under a low-cost business model, with infrastructure and aircraft operating costs below the overall industry average.

    Among the 13 regional carriers, four carriers reported reduced employment levels in October compared to the previous year: Endeavor Airlines, Chautauqua Airlines, Air Wisconsin and Horizon Airlines (Table 15). Regional carriers typically provide service from small cities, using primarily regional jets to support the network carriers’ hub and spoke systems.

    Carrier Groups: The five network airlines employed 67.1 percent of the total number of FTEs employed by all scheduled passenger airlines in October, the six low-cost carriers employed 18.2 percent and the 13 regional carriers employed 13.1 percent (Table 4). The three airlines with the most FTEs in October – United, Delta and American – employed 56.4 percent of the month’s total passenger airline FTEs (Table 6). These three airlines carried 40.3 percent of total passengers traveling on U.S. airlines in September, the most recent month available.

    Top employers by group: United employed the most FTEs (82,141) in October among the network airlines, Southwest employed the most FTEs (45,074) among low-cost airlines, and American Eagle Airlines employed the most FTEs (11,144) among regional airlines. Four of the top five employers in the industry are network airlines (Table 6).

    Airline Mergers

    Airlines that announce mergers begin joint reporting following receipt of a single operating certificate from the U.S. Department of Transportation. Southwest and AirTran began joint reporting in April 2012. American and US Airways, following their merger announcement, will report separately until they are issued a single operating certificate.

    Network Airlines

    Recent Changes: The network airlines employed 3,504 fewer FTEs in October 2013 than in October 2012, a 1.4 percent decrease. Three of the five network carriers reported an FTE decrease from October 2012 to October 2013 (Tables 8, 9).

    Four-Year Changes: The network airlines employed 3,290 fewer FTEs in October 2013 than in October 2009, a 1.3 percent decrease. American reported an 11.4 percent decrease in FTE employment from 2009 to 2013 while. US Airways reported an increase of 4.6 percent. October 2009 and October 2013 numbers for United and Delta are not directly comparable because of the intervening mergers. United reported 6.1 percent more FTEs in October 2013 than United and Continental reported separately in October 2009. Delta reported 2.6 percent fewer FTEs in October 2013 than Delta and Northwest reported separately in October 2009 (Tables 8, 9).

    Low-Cost Airlines

    Recent Changes: The six low-cost airlines reported 0.1 percent fewer FTEs as a group from October 2012 to October 2013. Frontier and Southwest reported year-to-year decreases while the remaining four airlines reported increases (Table 12).

    Four-Year Changes: The low-cost carriers employed 7,090 more FTEs in October 2013 than in October 2009, an 11.4 percent increase. Spirit reported the largest percentage increase, 85.2 percent, while Frontier reported a 19.8 percent decline. October 2013 numbers for Southwest are not directly comparable to 2009 because of the intervening merger. Southwest reported 6.1 percent more FTEs in October 2013 than Southwest and AirTran reported separately in October 2009 (Table 12).

    Regional Airlines

    Recent Changes: Regional airlines reported a 0.8 percent decrease in FTE employment in October 2013 compared to October 2012; three regional airlines discontinued service since a year ago. Republic Airlines and Mesa Airlines reported the largest percentage increases in FTEs from October 2012 to October 2013. Endeavor and Chautauqua reported the largest percentage decreases (Table 15).

    Four-Year Changes: The 13 regional carriers operating in October employed 4.3 percent fewer FTEs in 2013 than the 18 carriers operating in October 2009.  Mesa reported the largest percentage decline followed by Endeavor.  The ExpressJet/Atlantic Southeast combination reported 2.3 percent more FTE’s in October 2013 as the two airlines reported separately in October 2009.  GoJet reported the biggest four-year percentage gain (Table 15).

    Endeavor operated as Pinnacle prior to August 2013.

    Reporting Notes

    Airlines that operate at least one aircraft that has more than 60 seats or the capacity to carry a payload of passengers, cargo and fuel weighing more than 18,000 pounds must report monthly employment statistics.

    The “Other Carrier” category generally reflects those airlines that operate within specific niche markets such as Hawaiian Airlines and Island Air Hawaii serving the Hawaiian Islands. 

    Data are compiled from monthly reports filed with BTS by commercial air carriers as of Nov. 15.  Additional airline employment data and previous press releases can be found on the BTS website. BTS has scheduled release of October passenger airline employment data for Jan. 21.

     

    Table 1: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Airline Group

    Most recent 13 months - percent change compared to same month the previous year

    MonthNetwork AirlinesLow-Cost AirlinesRegional AirlinesAll Passenger Airlines**
    Oct 2011-Oct 2012 -1.4 1.9 -6.0 -1.3
    Nov 2011-Nov 2012 -2.4 1.4 -5.4 -2.0
    Dec 2011-Dec 2012 -3.3 1.3 -5.4 -2.6
    Jan 2012-Jan 2013 -3.1 1.1 -4.1 -2.2
    Feb 2012-Feb 2013 -3.0 0.2 -5.0 -2.4
    Mar 2012-Mar 2013 -3.3 -0.1 -4.6 -2.6
    Apr 2012-Apr 2013 -3.0 -0.3 -3.8 -2.4
    May 2012-May 2013 -3.0 -0.3 -4.4 -2.4
    Jun 2012-Jun 2013 -2.8 -0.6 -4.4 -2.4
    Jul 2012-Jul 2013 -2.8 -0.4 -6.3 -2.6
    Aug 2012-Aug 2013 -2.5 0.0 -5.1 -2.2
    Sep 2012-Sep 2013 -2.1 -0.2 -3.0 -1.6
    Oct 2012-Oct 2013 -1.4 -0.1 -0.8 -0.8

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    ** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers. Other Carriers generally operate within specific niche markets. They are: Hawaiian Airlines, Sun Country Airlines and Island Air Hawaii.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

    Note: See Table 2 for all passenger airlines, Table 7 for Network, Table 10 for Low-Cost and Table 13 for Regional.

     Table 2: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline* Full-time Equivalent Employees**

    Percent change compared to same month the previous year

    Month2010201120122013
    January -2.9 0.4 2.1 -2.3
    February -3.5 1.0 2.1 -2.5
    March -3.8 1.5 2.1 -2.7
    April -4.1 2.0 1.8 -2.4
    May -2.7 2.1 1.6 -2.5
    June -2.4 1.9 1.4 -2.4
    July -2.3 2.3 0.8 -2.6
    August -1.7 2.8 0.1 -2.2
    September -0.6 2.9 -0.6 -1.6
    October -0.4 3.0 -1.3 -0.8
    November 0.0 2.6 -2.0  
    December 0.2 2.7 -2.6  

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

    ** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 3: Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

    Month20092010201120122013Percent Change
    2009-20132012-2013
    January 390,566 379,388 380,949 388,778 380,037 -2.7 -2.2
    February 391,596 378,020 381,831 389,901 380,375 -2.9 -2.4
    March 392,077 377,261 382,796 390,761 380,536 -2.9 -2.6
    April 392,104 376,204 383,411 390,243 380,957 -2.8 -2.4
    May 387,431 376,957 384,974 390,957 381,423 -1.6 -2.4
    June 387,665 378,297 385,383 390,923 381,672 -1.5 -2.4
    July 386,770 378,060 386,843 391,286 381,299 -1.4 -2.6
    August 384,304 377,835 388,523 389,000 380,564 -1.0 -2.2
    September 379,924 377,676 388,641 386,372 380,165 0.1 -1.6
    October 379,713 378,112 389,444 384,310 381,178 0.4 -0.8
    November 379,358 379,335 389,361 381,639      
    December 378,953 379,651 389,728 379,571      
    12-Month Average 385,872 378,066 385,967 387,811      
    Jan-Oct Average 387,215 377,781 385,280 389,253 380,821 -1.7 -2.2

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

    ** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 4: Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2009-2013

     NetworkLow-CostRegionalAll Passenger Airlines**
    2009 259,031 62,406 52,143 379,713
    2010 255,890 64,297 52,402 378,112
    2011 262,912 68,267 53,490 389,444
    2012 259,245 69,551 50,305 384,310
    2013 255,741 69,496 49,890 381,178
    Pct. Change 2009-2013 -1.3% 11.4% -4.3% 0.4%
    Percent of Total Passenger Airline Employees in 2013 67.1% 18.2% 13.1%  

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    ** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

     Table 5: Year-to-Year Change in Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2009-2013

    Percent change in FTEs from the same month of the previous year

     NetworkLow-CostRegionalAll Passenger Airlines**
    2009 -2.8 -0.4 -10.1 -3.7
    2010 -1.2 3.0 0.5 -0.4
    2011 2.7 6.2 2.1 3.0
    2012 -1.4 1.9 -6.0 -1.3
    2013 -1.4 -0.1 -0.8 -0.8

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    ** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

     Table 6: Top 10 Airlines, October 2013

    Ranked by Number of Full-Time Equivalent Employees*

    RankAirlineTotal FTE EmployeesCarrier Group**Top 10 Airlines October 2012
    1 United 82,141 Network United
    2 Delta 73,492 Network Delta
    3 American 59,249 Network American
    4 Southwest 45,074 Low-Cost Southwest
    5 US Airways 31,364 Network US Airways
    6 JetBlue 12,993 Low-Cost JetBlue
    7 American Eagle 11,144 Regional American Eagle
    8 SkyWest 9,538 Regional SkyWest
    9 Alaska 9,495 Network Alaska
    10 ExpressJet 9,086 Regional ExpressJet

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    ** See Table 9 for Network, Table 12 for Low-Cost and Table 15 for Regional.

     Table 7: Network Airline Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year**

    Percent change compared to same month of the previous year

     2010201120122013
    January -2.3 0.3 1.5 -3.1
    February -3.0 1.1 1.2 -3.0
    March -3.1 1.5 1.2 -3.3
    April -3.6 1.8 1.3 -3.0
    May -1.9 2.1 1.3 -3.0
    June -1.6 1.6 1.4 -2.8
    July -1.6 2.1 0.8 -2.8
    August -0.9 2.7 -0.2 -2.5
    September 0.3 2.7 -0.8 -2.1
    October -1.2 2.7 -1.4 -1.4
    November -0.7 2.6 -2.4  
    December -0.5 2.3 -3.3  

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

     Table 8: Network Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month 2009-2013

    Month20092010201120122013Percent Change
    2009-20132012-2013
    January 263,934 257,787 258,653 262,561 254,377 -3.6 -3.1
    February 264,561 256,756 259,545 262,788 254,955 -3.6 -3.0
    March 264,811 256,504 260,454 263,464 254,870 -3.8 -3.3
    April 265,199 255,697 260,347 263,666 255,673 -3.6 -3.0
    May 260,485 255,518 260,832 264,183 256,272 -1.6 -3.0
    June 260,808 256,576 260,689 264,301 256,791 -1.5 -2.8
    July 260,459 256,373 261,818 263,793 256,474 -1.5 -2.8
    August 258,569 256,122 263,063 262,428 255,800 -1.1 -2.5
    September 254,866 255,751 262,639 260,649 255,194 0.1 -2.1
    October 259,031 255,890 262,912 259,245 255,741 -1.3 -1.4
    November 258,132 256,432 263,129 256,836      
    December 258,148 256,834 262,617 254,064      
    12-Month Average 260,750 256,353 261,385 261,498      
    Jan-Oct Average 261,272 256,297 261,095 262,708 255,615 -2.2 -2.7

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 9: Network Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2009-2013

    (FTEs for October of each year. Ranked by October 2013 FTEs)

    RankAirline20092010201120122013Percent Change
    2009-20132012-2013
    1 UA/CO Combined 77,389 76,086 80,699 82,312 82,141 6.1 -0.2
      United** 44,066 43,574 43,622 82,312 82,141 N/A -0.2
      Continental** 33,323 32,512 37,077 N/A N/A N/A N/A
    2 DL/NW Combined 75,473 76,261 76,221 74,663 73,492 -2.6 -1.6
      Delta*** 49,014 76,261 76,221 74,663 73,492 N/A -1.6
      Northwest*** 26,459 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
    3 American 66,902 65,112 66,476 62,700 59,249 -11.4 -5.5
    4 US Airways 29,978 29,475 30,604 30,366 31,364 4.6 3.3
    5 Alaska 9,290 8,958 8,913 9,205 9,495 2.2 3.2
      Total 259,031 255,892 262,912 259,245 255,741 -1.3 -1.4

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    ** United Airlines and Continental Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

    *** Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2010.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 10: Low-Cost Airline Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

    Percent change compared to same month of the previous year

    Month2010201120122013
    January 1.4 2.2 5.7 1.1
    February 1.4 2.3 6.4 0.2
    March 1.2 2.3 7.1 -0.1
    April 0.5 4.0 5.7 -0.3
    May 0.6 4.1 5.3 -0.3
    June 0.9 5.0 4.0 -0.6
    July 1.5 5.3 3.5 -0.4
    August 2.0 5.7 2.5 0.0
    September 2.7 5.9 2.5 -0.2
    October 3.0 6.2 1.9 -0.1
    November 3.2 5.9 1.4  
    December 3.3 6.6 1.3  

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 11: Low-Cost Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

     20092010201120122013Percent Change
    2009-20132012-2013
    January 62,699 63,600 64,978 68,684 69,464 10.8 1.1
    February 62,958 63,845 65,321 69,473 69,595 10.5 0.2
    March 63,027 63,783 65,273 69,886 69,853 10.8 -0.1
    April 63,275 63,571 66,114 69,861 69,675 10.1 -0.3
    May 63,532 63,933 66,553 70,053 69,817 9.9 -0.3
    June 63,501 64,046 67,261 69,969 69,574 9.6 -0.6
    July 63,025 63,981 67,373 69,756 69,510 10.3 -0.4
    August 62,775 64,022 67,682 69,380 69,364 10.5 0.0
    September 62,400 64,113 67,875 69,573 69,426 11.3 -0.2
    October 62,406 64,297 68,267 69,551 69,496 11.4 -0.1
    November 62,635 64,657 68,450 69,441      
    December 62,615 64,652 68,887 69,780      
    12-Month Average 62,904 64,042 67,003 69,617      
    Jan-Oct Average 62,960 63,919 66,670 69,619 69,577 10.5 -0.1

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    Note: Percent changes and averages based on numbers prior to rounding.

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

     Table 12: Low-Cost Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2009-2013

    (FTEs for October of each year. Ranked by October 2013 FTEs)

    Rank 20092010201120122013Percent Change
    2009-20132012-2013
    1 WN/FL Combined 42,501 42,757 45,306 46,015 45,074 6.1 -2.0
      Southwest** 34,748 34,990 37,349 46,015 45,074 N/A -2.0
      AirTran 7,753 7,767 7,957 N/A N/A N/A N/A
    2 JetBlue 10,801 11,245 12,108 12,506 12,993 20.3 3.9
    3 Spirit 1,883 2,121 2,401 2,812 3,487 85.2 24.0
    4 Frontier 4,284 4,839 4,835 4,007 3,437 -19.8 -14.2
    5 Virgin America 1,423 1,710 2,056 2,433 2,496 75.4 2.6
    6 Allegiant 1,515 1,627 1,563 1,779 2,009 32.6 12.9
      Total 62,406 64,299 68,267 69,551 69,496 11.4 -0.1

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    ** Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways merged and began reporting combined numbers in April 2012.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 13: Regional Airline Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

    Percent change compared to same month of the previous year

    Month2010201120122013
    January -8.5 0.4 0.1 -4.1
    February -9.8 0.9 0.8 -5.0
    March -10.1 1.8 0.2 -4.6
    April -9.3 2.1 -1.5 -3.8
    May -8.0 1.6 -2.2 -4.4
    June -7.7 1.5 -2.5 -4.4
    July -7.5 1.9 -3.3 -6.3
    August -7.2 2.1 -2.3 -5.1
    September -6.6 2.0 -4.3 -3.0
    October 0.5 2.1 -6.0 -0.8
    November -1.0 0.6 -5.4  
    December -0.3 1.5 -5.4  

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 14: Regional Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month

     20092010201120122013Percent Change
    2009-20132012-2013
    January 57,436 52,531 52,764 52,796 50,637 -11.8 -4.1
    February 57,581 51,952 52,409 52,831 50,188 -12.8 -5.0
    March 57,310 51,522 52,468 52,581 50,180 -12.4 -4.6
    April 56,778 51,502 52,596 51,811 49,861 -12.2 -3.8
    May 56,626 52,074 52,930 51,746 49,478 -12.6 -4.4
    June 56,563 52,210 52,984 51,664 49,415 -12.6 -4.4
    July 56,477 52,229 53,197 52,715 49,387 -12.6 -6.3
    August 56,236 52,179 53,284 52,082 49,434 -12.1 -5.1
    September 56,009 52,322 53,361 51,082 49,546 -11.5 -3.0
    October 52,143 52,402 53,490 50,305 49,890 -4.3 -0.8
    November 53,176 52,656 52,954 50,100      
    December 52,730 52,549 53,328 50,423      
    12-Month Average 55,755 52,177 52,980 51,678      
    Jan-Oct Average 56,316 52,092 52,948 51,961 49,802 -11.6 -4.2

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

     Table 15: Regional Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, October 2009-2013

    (FTEs for October of each year. Ranked by October 2013 FTEs)

    Rank 20092010201120122013Percent Change
    2009-20132012-2013
    1 American Eagle 9,024 9,457 10,184 10,441 11,144 23.5 6.7
    2 SkyWest 8,591 9,023 9,414 9,227 9,538 11.0 3.4
    3 XE/EV Combined 8,879 9,185 9,296 8,935 9,086 2.3 1.7
      ExpressJet** 5,262 5,476 5,427 8,935 9,086 N/A 1.7
      Atlantic Southeast** 3,617 3,709 3,869 N/A N/A N/A N/A
    4 9E/XJ Combined 5,707 5,624 5,710 4,750 4,052 -29.0 -14.7
      Endeavor*** 3,352 3,421 3,758 4,750 4,052 N/A -14.7
      Mesaba*** 2,355 2,203 1,952 N/A N/A N/A N/A
    5 Horizon 3,215 2,938 2,838 2,732 2,719 -15.4 -0.5
    6 Republic**** 1,744 2,005 2,028 2,057 2,600 49.1 26.4
    7 Air Wisconsin 2,530 2,531 2,555 2,544 2,455 -3.0 -3.5
    8 Shuttle America 1,324 1,242 1,581 1,890 2,013 52.0 6.5
    9 Mesa 2,582 2,092 1,840 1,643 1,770 -31.4 7.7
    10 Chautauqua# N/A N/A N/A 1,322 1,167 N/A -11.7
    11 Compass 881 977 1,026 1,135 1,153 30.9 1.6
    12 PSA 970 998 1,040 1,089 1,097 13.1 0.7
    13 GoJet 537 552 611 1,036 1,096 104.1 5.8
    14 Executive## 1,784 1,771 1,799 1,330 N/A N/A N/A
    15 Colgan### 1,263 1,391 1,580 64 N/A N/A N/A
    16 Comair#### 2,717 2,497 1,992 114 N/A N/A N/A
    17 Lynx##### 397 121 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
      Total 52,143 52,404 53,490 50,305 49,890 -4.3 -0.8

    Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics

    * Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

    ** ExpressJet Airlines and Atlantic Southeast Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

    *** Endeavor Airlines operated as Pinnacle prior to August 2013. Pinnacle Airlines and Mesaba Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

    **** Effective with November 2009 reporting, Republic Airlines' employment numbers include FTE's from Midwest Airlines. Midwest employment data were formerly included in the "Other Airlines" category.

    # Effective July 2012 Chautauqua Airlines began reporting employment data.

    ## Effective the end of March 2013, Executive Airlines ceased operations.

    ### Effective the end of September 2012, Colgan Airlines ceased operations.

    #### Effective the end of October 2012, Comair ceased operations.

    ##### Effective the end of March 2011, Lynx Airlines ceased operations.

    N/A: Carriers did not meet the standard for filing, was no longer operating, merged with another operating carrier or failed to file. See previous notes.

    Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.



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